Bešindos

bešindos, pro bešindoš: in a sitting position.

Roma blacksmiths typically worked sitting on the ground. They undoubtedly brought this style of working from India. Even today, nomadic blacksmiths, gadulija lohar, living predominantly in Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, work in a sitting position – very much like Roma blacksmiths in Turkey, Greece and elsewhere in the Balkans. The German traveller Arnold von Harff, who in 1491 came through the port of Modon on the coast of Epirus while on his pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, described a colony of "Gypsies" residing in shacks on the outskirsts of the town and admiringly noted that their blacksmiths, unlike those in Europe, worked sitting down.

During the second half of the eighteenth century, some district administrators interpreted the assimilation edicts of Maria Theresa to mean that they were to rid the Roma of all their specific characteristics. For example, in the district of Gemer, a circular was published in 1768 declaring, among other rules, that Gypsy blacksmiths were forbidden to work sitting. (V. Gecelovský).

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Image Roma smith (Hungary)
Roma smith (Hungary), 1850