Ideas for using Roma-related topics in class

Music Lessons
Reasons
Didactic Objectives
Classroom Use
German Lessons
Reasons
Didactic Objectives
Classroom Use
History and Social Studies
Reasons
Didactic Objectives
Classroom Use
Geography and Economy
Reasons
Didactic Objectives
Classroom Use

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In this part, suggestions for including certain central topics into classroom talk– History, Ethnology & Sociology, Music, Language and Personalities - are made. They are presented with reference to the curriculum, and divided according to the different forms; of course, these topics can also be used in subjects like Political Education, Religion, Art, as well as in adult education whenever they can complement a certain topic. These are suggestions only, which can and will have to be modified and adapted for the specific purpose. (1)

The didactic suggestions and objectives are in accordance with the curriculum of the 'Hauptschule' (Secondary Modern School), which is identical to the curriculum of the AHS (Grammar School) Unterstufe. Of course they can also be used in Polytechnic Schools and with the upper classes of AHS.

The reference to the curriculum under the heading 'Reasons for dealing with this Topic' are exemplary and included in order to show that including Roma-related topics makes sense and that can easily be integrated into 'normal' lessons

The principles of cross-curricular teaching, intercultural learning and tolerance are not mentioned separately, as they are generally valid.


Didactic suggestions for Music Lessons

(With reference to Appendix 1: Lehrplan der Hauptschule [Curriculum], part 6: Musikerziehung des BGBl. II Nr. 134/2000)

Reasons for dealing with this Topic - with reference to the curriculum for Musical Education (Sekundarstufe I)

The objectives of the curriculum for Musical Education include, among others, the following topics, which propose an integration of Roma music:

active examination of as many musical areas, époques and expressions as possible

understanding the interaction of music and society, and the social significance of music

seeing music as a factor of organizing one's life

awareness of Austria's musical identity


Didactic Objectives

The pupils should

-- become acquainted with the diversity of Roma music, its forms, genres, styles (interpretation of different folk music, Flamenco, "gypsy"-jazz, Hungarian "gypsy" music, Rompop etc.

-- get to know the different musical instruments in various ensembles

-- understand the interaction of music and society, and the social significance of music (particularly because music plays an important role in everyday Roma life, both as a spontaneous expression of a joie de vivre, and for the profession of musician)

-- experience music as a possible factor of organizing one's life (biographies of Roma musicians can be used as an example to show the interaction of many spheres of life with music and serve as an example for organizing one's life with music)

-- perceive the mutual influence of different culture groups (for instance, regional folk music has a great influence on the music of the Roma; at the same time, Roma music influences the music of the majority- up to the works of great composers like Liszt and Haydn)

-- be aware of Austria's musical identity (which includes the music of the minorities)

-- experience and talk about the effects of different Roma music (because Roma music, apart from various regional-cultural influences, fulfills different functions; the repertoire includes light music, laments, lyric and narrative songs and ballads, lullabies etc.)


Suggestions for Classroom Use

Diversity of Roma music

With the CD Road of the Gypsies examples of different musical styles of Roma music (Flamenco, "gypsy"-swing, vocal music of the Vlach-Roma) can be chosen and contrasted; this will illustrate the stylistic diversity of international "gypsy"-music.

For similar purposes the cassette Romane ģila can be used, which illustrates a part of the musical spectrum of Roma living in Austria.



→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Music
→ Rombase
Music » Genres
Music » Countries
Collection of Material/CD Road of the Gypsies
Collection of Material/MC Romane ģila

Further Topics (Diversity of Roma music)

Diversity in Roma music is caused by the fact that the Roma are living all around the world and thus in various spheres of cultural influence.

Together with the Geography teacher the spheres of influence can be traced on a map, as well as the places of birth and residence (which often differ) of Roma musicians.

Collection of Material/CD booklet Road of the Gypsies
Collection of Material/MC booklet Romane ģila

Fairy Tales and Songs

The CD in the collection of material with Roma fairies and songs (with tapescript in the accompanying booklet) can be used very well for cross-curricular teaching Music – German. While or after listening, the texts can be read in the German translation. For further topics in the German lesson, see next chapter.

→ Rombase
Literature
Collection of Material/CD Schun, so me phunkavav ..., Kodo phende e Romora ..., Oh romnije zelenije ...
Collection of Material/Buch Der Rom und der Teufel, Fern von uns im Traum ..., Die schlaue Romni

Instrumentation and Ensembles

Selected examples of Roma folk music can be used to find out about the instruments and the arrangements of Roma ensembles, and to compare these with examples of regional folk music.

→ Rombase
Music » Typical Instruments
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Collection of Material » Sound Carriers

Drawing along to music

With background music pupils should try to paint a relevant aspect of Roma life. The finished drawings can be presented and commented on afterwards. The pictures can be ordered according to content.

Note: in order to allow the pupils to really use their imagination, give only as little instructions as strictly necessary; however, the students must be aware that they are listening to Roma music. If the pupils don't have any ideas about the subject, it might be necessary to talk about the issues beforehand. But one might expect them to have certain associations with the term "gypsies".

→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Collection of Material » Sound Carriers

Further Topics (Drawing along to music)

The drawings can be further analyzed with the following questions:
Which picture(s) of the Roma do the pupils have? Do these pictures reflect reality or clichés? Which clichés?
It might be possible to have the pupils draw two pictures – one before giving them any information and one after dealing with the subject. Then the pictures can be compared to see how the given information changed the picture of the Roma the pupils had.

→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » General Topics » Stereotypes and Folklorism
Collection of Material/Book Sinti und Roma p.123-141

Dance / Theater

A Roma fairy or song can be staged and performed together with the German teacher. The chosen stories and songs should be discussed beforehand, and necessary background given.

Collection of Material/CD Schun, so me phukavav ..., Kodo phende e Romora ..., Oh romnije zelenije ...
Collection of Material/Book Der Rom und der Teufel, Fern von uns im Traum ..., Die schlaue Romni

Biographies

In groups, biographies of Roma musicians can be written.

→ Rombase
Personalities

Further Topics (Biographies)

What is the role of music in the life of the Roma? Cooperation with the Geography and Economy teacher will be necessary to talk about the lines of business of the Roma, in order to avoid a one-sided picture of the Roma as musicians.

What is the importance of music for minorities and ethnic groups? Discuss together with the Geography teacher.

→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » Work and Professions
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Articles » Personalities

Didactic suggestions for German Lessons

(With reference to Appendix 1: Lehrplan der Hauptschule [curriculum], part 6: Deutsch des BGBl. II Nr. 134/2000)

Reasons for dealing with this topic – with reference to the curriculum for German (Sekundarstufe I)

The curriculum's objectives for the subject German are very vague, so an integration of Roma language and literature is possible (and enriching) in most areas.
The curriculum (in extracts) plans for the students to be able to

express experiences and ideas with the help of language, to absorb, work with and convey factual information, and to deal with and give their opinion on a certain topic

understand forms of expressions of texts and their effects, and to use linguistic means creatively

get insight into the structure and function of language

The general introduction of the curriculum dealing with the general objectives of education mentions the conveying of values and life style with the help of texts and the examination of religion, world views and traditions as a basis for respecting other cultures and ways of life. These ideas will be enhanced by the use of material from a different culture group.


Didactic Objectives

The pupils should

-- learn to analyze Roma narratives with reference to content and style with the help of selected language

-- be able to notice and talk about differences and parallels between their own and other cultures

-- learn to understand and talk about information in narratives, and to gather information about and discuss various topics (the films in the collection of material could be a good basis for discussion and statements)

-- learn, with the help of texts, that there are religious and ideological ideas, traditions and values which differ from their own ones, but are still as valid

-- be able to contrast literary features of Roma texts (with the help of German translations) to features they know

-- according to their abilities, learn about the language of the Roma, and various aspects of that language (origin, history, sounds, lexicon, structure)

-- learn that power structures are also reflected in language (keywords: language bans, borrowings)


Suggestions for Classroom Use

Traditional World and Everyday Culture

Selected stories taken from the book Zigeunermärchen by Philomena Franz are read with the pupils and their content is analyzed. This book particularly expresses (traditional) life and ideology of the Roma (particularly of the Sinti), customs and traditions, but also prejudices against the Roma are talked about. Reasons for some particularities in Roma tradition (e.g. existence of special non-Roma names) may be found.

Collection of Material/Book Zigeunermärchen
→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » General Topics » Names of Roma
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Sociology and Ethnology

Language as "ambassador" of culture

A short passage of a fairy tale exiting both in German and Romani is played in Romani. This should show the pupils that the Roma have their own language, which until recently was an exclusively oral one; thus, passing stories, fairies and songs on by word of mouth is the primary means for Roma to pass on their history and culture.

Afterwards, the whole story is analyzed in the German translation (for analysis, see below)

→ Rombase
Literature
Collection of Material/Audio Fairy Tales and Narratives

Further Topics (Language as ambassador of culture) for Sekundarstufe II

On the basis of an impulse (article) on the language of the Roma (see Cultural Documentation), a short description of the language is put together (origin, family, number of speakers in Europe, lexicon, word classes etc.)

→ Rombase
Language
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Language
Collection of Material/Book What is the Romani language?

Analysis of Fairy Tales and Narratives

Roma fairies and narratives may be analyzed with reference to:

-- content: leitmotif, themes, world of the Roma – in how far do Roma fairies differ from German fairies? What can be deduced from the narratives about Roma life and culture?

-- form and style: the fairy tales and narratives in the collection of material are (with the exception of "gypsy fairies") written-down versions of oral narrative traditions; the differences between spoken and written language can be analyzed well. In the oral tradition of the Roma story-telling is an interactive process, that is the audience is often addressed directly, which conveys a feeling of particular immediacy

-- formulae for beginnings and endings: which phrases form the beginning and endings of Roma fairies? Analyze the differences and parallels between Roma and German fairies

The appendix at the end of various books includes background information on Roma fairies, narratives and songs (among others information on motives and characteristics).

Collection of Material/Book Fairy Tales and Narratives
Collection of Material/CD Schun, so me phukavav ..., Kodo phende e Romora ..., Oh romnije zelenije ...
Collection of Material/Book Der Rom und der Teufel, Fern von uns im Traum ..., Die schlaue Romni

Loan- and Foreign Words

By reading a short passage of the book Der Rom und der Teufel in Burgenland-Romani pupils can try to find loanwords from German (and other languages). This "detective game" has the added benefit of a passage closely read. Additionally, the pupils will get an idea of the Burgenland-Romani during this search, particularly if the accompanying CD Hör, was ich erzähl... is used – German words or words in the Burgenland dialect are found more easily if "listened" than "read".
Attention: The spelling of words taken from the Burgenland dialect reflects the sounds (the words are written in the way they are pronounced); for instance, "Schraubstock" (vice) is spelled schraufschtok, "eigene" (own) ajgene.

Collection of Material/Book Der Rom und der Teufel
Collection of Material/CD Hör, was ich erzähle ...

Further Topics (Loan- and Foreign Words)

Which languages did German borrow from? Why are words being borrowed from another language? What is the difference between a loan- and a foreign word?
Another possible topic (Sekundarstufe II) is the discussion of the question why Romani mainly borrows, and why very rarely words are being borrowed from Romani (keywords: image, prestige, conatct): German special and secret languages (like Jenisch and Rotwelsch) borrowed several hundred words from Romani; colloquial German, however, only has two words which are undoubtedly of Romani origin: "Zaster" (money) from Romani: saster = iron, and "Bock" (interest) (like in "I'm not interested in...") from Romani: bokh = hunger (Matras 2002:249f) (2)

→ Rombase
Language » Structure » Lexicon
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Language

Abschied von Sidonie

Erich Hackl's book Abschied von Sidonie can be read by the whole class or an individual pupil (for a presentation). Together with History, the situation of the Roma during National Socialism, and other problematic situations mentioned in the book can be analyzed and discussed.

Collection of Material/Book Abschied von Sidonie
Collection of Material/Video Sidonie

Didactic suggestions for History and Social Studies

(With reference to Appendix 1: Lehrplan der Hauptschule [curriculum], part 6: Geschichte und Sozialkunde des Bgbl. II Nr. 134/2000)

Reasons for dealing with this topic – with reference to the curriculum for History and Social Studies (Sekundarstufe I)

Teaching History means, aming others, an encounter with one's own and other's cultures. The following topics make a reference to the history of the Roma meaningful:

getting to know various models of human existance in the past, in order to understand and tolerate the "other" in the present

lessons should deal with the basic concepts of politics, power, society, economy and culture

lessons should allow insight into the history of Europe and the world, and into Austria's history, in order to be able to reflect on the concept of identity

confrontation with areas of conflict, such as order / freedom, power / co-determination, war / peace in order to teach the pupils about democracy and rule of law

The curriculum names several attitudes, which can be conveyed even more efficiently when dealing with the history of the Roma (in connection with the history of the majority population), such as a differentiated, multi-perspective view due to the contact with the "other" (different in place and time), being able to explain present-day economic, social, political and cultural phenomena as a result of past developments, a consciousness of the manifold causes of historic events and the multiple possibilities for their interpretation,...

The same is true for abilities and techniques like independently procuring, absorbing and judging information, particularly because a lack of schoolbooks concerning the history of the Roma makes these techniques necessary.


Didactic Objectives

The pupils should

-- realize that there are models of existence different from their own, which – even though they are different – have to be regarded as equal

-- be aware of the fact that politics / power, society, economy and culture concern not only the majority, but also oftentimes unnoticed minorities (like the Roma), from whose perspective these issues look very different than from the perspective of those in power

-- learn to recognize the Roma as part of their history and thus as part of their identity

-- see that order / freedom, power / co-determination and war/peace are no absolute categories; rather, they may be seen differently by different groups within one society, one state

-- gain insight into the historic interrelations and thus achieve a better comprehension of present-day actuality

-- achieve a differentiated and multi-perspective view

-- learn to see that history, depending on the point of view, can be written in different ways

-- develop specific abilities, such as the ability to independently procure, and critically judge, information, because particularly with regard to the Roma many half-truths and ideas based on clichés are circulating. In this respect it is necessary to find one's own position and to be able to defend this position.


Suggestions for Classroom Use

Integration of Roma History

It is generally desirable to integrate the history of the Roma into the History lessons, meaning that events of Roma history, which are always connected to the history of the "host country", are dealt with in "normal" lessons; for instance, origins and early migration fit into the subject matter for the 6th form, the arrival of the Roma, the policy of assimilation under Maria-Theresia and Joseph II up to the beginning of systematic persecution fits into 7th form, the persecution and extinction of many Roma in the Third Reich and the development since 1945 up to the present-day situation fit in with the subjects for the 8th form.

The history of the Roma, particularly the (historic) dealings with the majority population, or of those in power with the Roma, is quite relevant for the understanding of the present-day situation, the culture, and the way of life of the Roma. Historical benchmark dates and background information can be found in the respective Rombase – database entries.
The question why the Roma and their history is not mentioned in schoolbooks may be worth a discussion in higher forms (Sekundarstufe II).

→ Rombase
History and Politics

Origin and Early Migration

Early migration of the Roma: from India to Europe.
The probable paths can be understood more easily with the help of an historic atlas. Then, the possible reasons for these wanderings can be discussed.

→ Rombase
History and Politics » From India to Europe
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » History (with chart)

Further Topics (Origin and Early Migration)

How is it possible to trace the Roma's migration from India to Europe, even though there are no historic sources to document these early migrations? (3)

→ Rombase
Language » General » Origin and Denomination
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Language

Clichés and Stereotypes

Many prejudices, clichés and stereotypes concerning the Roma can be historically explained and solved. For instance, under Maria-Theresia's reign many Roma children were taken away from the Roma in order to give them a Christian education; the Roma tried to get back their children, which is at the origin of the common prejudice that "gypsies" allegedly steal children (4)

→ Rombase
History and Politics » Modern Times » Maria Theresia and Joseph II

Further Topics (Clichés and Stereotypes)

The picture of the Roma in various historical époques, for instance in Romanticism, during Maria-Theresia's reign, or in the Third Reich, are contrasted with the pictures existing today.
Prejudices, clichés and stereotypes do not apply to the Roma alone. Which other fellow men / groups / peoples / nations are concerned by these oftentimes inappropriate characterizations and generalizations?

Together with Geography the following questions can be discussed: Which minorities are there in Austria? Which are recognized as ethnic groups? What does this acknowledgement mean?

→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » General Topics » Stereotypes and Folklorism
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Sociology & Ethnology
Collection of Material/Book Sinti und Roma p.9ff.
Collection of Material/Book I am from Austria

Bondage and Slavery

In connection with the topic "slavery", in schools mostly linked with slavery in the US, the focus could be on the events in Europe – in other words on our own doorsteps - namely the bondage and slavery of the Roma in Valachy: existing until 1856 – more than half a millennium – it was the cause of the 2nd big migration of Roma, which in many countries has been interpreted as "gypsy invasion" and lead to an intensification of what was called "gypsy policy"

→ Rombase
History and Politics » Modern Times » History of the Vlach Roma

National Socialism and Holocaust

The persecution and extinction of Roma during National Socialism is a big issue, dealt with extensively in literature, films and Roma songs. In the collection of material there is a vast array of material: Erich Hackl's Abschied von Sidonie, the film Sidonie by Karin Brandauer, Ceja Stojka's autobiography Wir leben im Verborgenen, the film Auf Wiedersehen im Himmel etc., including lesson plans. Similarly, Roma fairy tales and narratives often pick out the drastic events and experiences of this time as a central theme. Here, however, it is enough to mention the collected material; it is enough evidence, enough material and information for the teachers who can include it in a suitable way into their lessons.

→ Rombase
History and Politics » Holocaust
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Collection of material

Further Topics (National Socialism and Holocaust)

Which people and groups were persecuted in the Third Reich? Connected with this question are many others, e.g. How was persecution, up to extinction, justified? How does the public deal with it today? What about reparations? (5)

Biographic Chronological Tables

Biographies often tell more about the history and the life of the Roma than dates and figures alone. Drawing up biographic chronological tables is a good way of finding an immediate access to a generally "unknown" people.

→ Rombase
Personalities

Each group of pupils should draw up a biographic chronological table for one Roma personality. With the help of this table individual fates as well as historic facts and events can be shown, the more so because political and social changes had stronger effects on the Roma than on the majority population. (In recent years, see the war on the Balkans or the "Velvet" Revolution in the Czech Republic; both events particularly concerned the Roma, and partially they are still the sufferers of the political development.)

For this work the personalities in the Rombase chapters can be used, but the pupils could also carry out their own inquiries with the help of the links mentioned in the impulse article. The advantage of having them do their own research is the fact that the pupils will acquire a lot of Roma-related information incidentally.

→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Articles » Roma-Personalities
→ Pedagogics
Literature, Films and Links

Present Situation

Cross-curricular teaching with Geography and Economy could focus on and compare the present-day situation of the Roma in Austria and the countries of Europe. For background information, the European Roma Rights Center's (ERRC) homepage may be of help, where reliable and well-investigated articles can be found and downloaded. This homepage, however, is exclusively in English: perhaps the texts could be read with the English teacher.

EERC Reports
→ Rombase
History and Politics » 1945 up to the present » Current Situation

Didactic suggestions for Geography and Economy

(With reference to Appendix 1: Lehrplan der Hauptschule [curriculum], part 6: Geografie und Wirtschaftskunde des Bgbl.II Nr. 134/2000)

Reasons for including this topic with reference to the curriculum for Geography and Economy (Sekundarstufe I)

The curriculum for Geography and Economy includes the following objectives, which recommend an integration of Roma-related topics:

The central focus of Geography and Economy is the human being; the subject matter of lessons are the spatial aspects of human acts.

The following issues are worth striving for:

conscious perception, description and explanation of facts, connections and developments of human acts

developing systems of orientation and relation with the help of subject-related material and techniques, in order to be able to independently acquire, order, and use information

an insight into different economic and social systems, in order to be able to deal with present-day and future political questions, as well as being able to act in a democratic and tolerant way


Didactic Objectives

The pupils should

-- realize that and how geographic and economic facts are connected to the situation of the Roma (this connection is particularly well-defined with the Roma, because they have always had to and been able to adapt to changing local and economic situations).

-- learn how to acquire, critically judge and convert information – e.g. with graphs or maps (also see drawing up of maps in the Suggestions for Classroom Use; here the pupils have to work with quite diverging numbers concerning migration routes and population – the pupils can sharpen their ability of critical assessment of numbers and statistics)

-- get to know a variety of possible ways of life and thus achieve esteem towards "the other"

-- learn how to use a globe, an atlas or maps in connection with questions and facts (particularly because the Roma are living all around the world and to explain the reasons for this Diaspora)


Suggestions for Classroom Use

Origin and Early Migration

Draw up a map on which the 1st migration of the Roma (from India to Europe) is traced. The pupils should try to look up the countries the Roma traveled in an atlas and add them to a "dumb atlas" (without country indications). (6)

Together with History the recurring phenomenon of migration can be studied. The reasons for migrations can be analyzed (e.g. hunger, economic situation,...)

→ Rombase
History and Politics » From India to Europe
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » History

Economic Systems

Concerning "economic systems" there are quite a few questions the answer to which should give insight into the life of the Roma and additionally show that our preconceived notions about work and professions are only a small part of the spectrum of possible employment.

What are the traditional Roma professions? With the help of these, different economic systems can be discussed (barter, mobile professions, niche professions,...)

Why are/were there groups of Roma who live(d) a nomadic life? Which economic systems does nomadism favor?

What could be the reasons for the loss of traditional Roma professions?

Which professions do the Roma work in? What caused this change?

→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » Work and Professions
→ Pedagogics
Handbook » Impulse Article » Sociology & Ethnology » Work

Nomadic and Settled

The mobile life of the Roma, oftentimes wrongly seen as a wandering life, is connected to specific economic systems. The pupils should think about the advantages and disadvantages of nomadic and settled life respectively.
Then, the truth in the clichés of the traveling people is discussed.

→ Rombase
Ethnology and Groups » General Topics » Nomadic and sedentary

Population Numbers

Draw up a map in which the number of Roma living in the individual countries of Europe are charted. The pupils will discover that the numbers vary strongly depending on the source; particularly the numbers of official censuses are significantly lower than the estimated numbers, which are closer to reality.

Further Topics (Population Numbers)

Why do official numbers of the Roma population differ so much from estimations? What could be the reason for the fact that many Roma often do not acknowledge their being Roma (at least in official surveys)? Is there only one, single identity (being Rom / Romni, being Austrian, man or woman – key word multiple identities)? Etc.

Note: According to the 1991 census in Austria, there were only 122 speakers of Romanes (7), whereas in 2001 already 6273 people defined Romanes as their colloquial language. This reflects a pleasant tendency, namely that thanks to initiatives of and for Roma the self-confidence of the Roma living in Austria has increased significantly over the last years. (8)

→ Rombase
Language » General » Speakers and Numbers
1 Most teachers will know the ideas in principle - they are what could be called "pedagogical common property" – but they are used here in a new context. This is why it is not possible to cite the originators of single ideas. If someone feels passed over, we apologize.
2 Matras, Yaron (2002) Romani. A linguistic introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://www.sprachen.ac.at/download/sprachwege.pdf – Lesson plans for Burgenland-Romani with many examples of hereditary words, borrowings and foreign words, including material for primary schools
Collection of Material/Book What is the Romani language?, particularly the chapter Nature of the Romani language (21 ff, particularly the headings "Where do Romani words come from?", "Romani is not corrupted by borrowings", "What can we learn from loandwords")
3 Background information, maps and examples of the development of Romani lexikon see: Sprachwege. Der Zusammenhang von Kultur und Sprache am Beispiel des Burgenland-Romani. Download: http://www.sprachen.ac.at/download/sprachwege.pdf
4 For background information and lesson plans on the topic "Prejudices and Clichés" to be found under Collection of Material/Book Sinti and Roma p. 123ff.
5 On the question of reparations see Collection of Material/BookSinti und Roma
Also see the film: Das falsche Wort (Germany 1987); see Literature, Films und Links.
6 For map models and scematic presentation of migration routes see Sprachwege. Der Zusammenhang von Kultur und Sprache am Beispiel des Burgenland-Romani. Download http://www.sprachen.ac.at/download/sprachwege.pdf
7 Romanes just like Romani is a term for the language of the Roma. This website usually uses the term Romani; here, however, we keep the term used by the census.
8 The Roma in Europe: http://www.minderheiten.org/roma/index.htm under: Überblick » Roma in Europa (Länderkugel)
For official numbers and estimatins for Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slavakia and Hungary see a.o. http://old.swp-berlin.org/produkte/bparchiv/romafrage1.htm
Official numbers and estiamtions for EU countries (2001): http://www.ciemen.org/mercator/index-gb.htm under Publications Mercator » "Working Papers" » Working Paper 3 (2001): The political status of the Romani language in Europe (pdf Download).
(Critical) Information about censuses in Austria on Austria`s ethnic groups and censuses of Roma in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia can be found on the homepage of ECE, the "Enagagierte Computer Expert(inn)en":http://195.230.63.132/ece/h_volks.html.
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